Introduction to 1C




a) 18+ HCP balanced hands or 17+ HCP unbalanced, and 5+ controls


OR ONE OF:                                                        _______

b) 17 balanced, no Jacks                                                    |

c)  any 8+ controls                                                               |___   UPGRADES

d) 16 HCP with a good 6-card suit                    |

e) 7 controls and a 7+ card suit                                        |

f)  bad day at work                                _______                |



From 1D to about 2S or so, the opener may determine responder's holdings of A's, K's, and Q's through the control-showing matrix.  The Blue Team club also centered on controls before shape, with simple responses (1S = 3, 1N = 4...).  Few people have managed to remember the Ultimate Club's version, but it is what distinguishes the system from all others, and what gives it great accuracy.


Starting at about 2S, the responder's suits finally come to light.  The responses tend to be natural at the 3 level, but exact shape is commonly not known. This is becuause opener signs off much of the time before exact shape is known, as a minimum opener will not really care to risk going beyond a playable contract.  It takes good knowledge of the relays to know when you must sign off...  one relay more could be the overbid as responder shows you which is his doubleton and which is his singleton:  if you don't need it, don't ask for it.


Once shape is known, denial cue-bidding begins.  Opener, at this point, does know appoximately how many of each honor responder has, but does not know exactly where they lie.  Bypassing a suit shows a specific  honor in that suit.  Bidding a suit shows all the bypassed suits, and denies the specific honor in the bid suit.  So responding to a relay of 4C with 4S shows the indicated cards in diamonds and hearts, denying it in spades.  The first glance at a suit is for A's or K's, and the second is for the Q, the third for the J, and the last for the Ten.  Denying a suit the first time shows either no A/K or both A and K.  The correct holding should be obvious. 


Finally, there are some sequences that come from a different edition of the system, which I put in [brackets] and label 'book'.  These are simply differences, and are to be fully agreed-upon before using.


If you think this text is hard to follow, join the club.




This section comes last in the notes, but I've promoted it to the beginning because it is the most common development after a 1C opening.


Let's face it, we can't always have a 20+ hand after 1C-1D!  To relay 1H after a 1D negative requires 20+ HCP.  However, Ultimate Club can have some strong negatives, as 1D can be bid on quite "quacky" hands.



                (4th hand interference)  See end of 1C Notes

                1H           Normal relay, 20+ HCP


                1S           Natural, 17-19, may be canape to any suit, NF

                                1NT = forcing (2m = 5+s 3+m, 2H = 4-5/5-4, 2S = 6+, 2N = good 6+ bal, 3m = canape,

                                                                3H = canape conc. strength), then

                                                3NSS = invit weaker than 2/1

                                                2 lev = NF

                                                3NSJ = fit for minor with stopper

                                                3NT = spade splinter, fit 2nd suit

                                2NS = GF unless rebid (F1, book)

                                2N = GF (nat, book),   3NS = invit splinter 4+ s,  4NS = void splinter 2K


                1NT        18-20

                                Stayman, Jacoby (see 1NT section)


                2m/H      Natural, 17-19, tends to deny a 4-card spade suit

                                NSS = F to 2N

                                3NSJ = invit minisplinter


                2S/3C/3D/3H = 17-19, 5-5 lower of touching, invit


                2N = 17-19, 5-5 nontouching invit (3C = asks [3D/H nat], 3other = one-suited bad hand)


                What to do with Roman (4441) hands? - Dan


                [book: 2S = S+D, 2NT = C + M (3D asks), 3C/D/H = lower of touching]

                3S = 6S-5C


2. The Control-Showing Matrix


On to the control-showing matrix.  Responder has a heavy first negative, and opener can relay for further and further weaker negatives, until he gives up and describes his sub-GF hand, or gets a non-negative which creates a GF.



JACKS ARE IGNORED!, but 3 J's may be converted into 1 Q in balanced hands.

An isolated (no ctrls) QQQ is equal to A.

An isolated QQ is equal to a King.

Treat 4 Queens with at least one control as AQ.

Treat 4 Queens in isolation as AA.

In a distributional freak (11+ cards in two suits), don't count singleton honors less than an Ace.


A note on notation:  a dot before a bid (.3H) indicates a response to the normal relay.


The really strong responding hands (5+C unbal, 6+C bal - see chart at end of matrix):  Say each possible honor combination for responder is sequenced:  abcdefghABCD with a the weakest and D the strongest.  In your lifetime you will see a through h 99% of the time, and maybe once a year A, B, if you are lucky.  D is unheard of.  All the bidding sequences are made to describe a through h.  In each unbalanced distribution sequence, though, is a possible breakoff place:  2NT.  If this 2NT is bid, and then followed by a rare confirmation of extra strength (3H+) then a capital-letter holding has been revealed (the jackpot).  The distribution-showing for these extra strength holdings is exactly the same as those for the normal holdings, but one level higher in every respect (3H=2H, 3S=2S, etc.).   So in the chart below, the capital-letter holdings are not initially demarcated.  There is a special chart at the end of the matrix for extra controls (5+C unbal, 6+C bal). One way to remember is that the slower (and lower) 2NT is reached, the better the hand with extra strength.


1C 17+ unbalanced, 18+ balanced, 5+ controls

                1D  0-2 controls ( if 2 controls then 4-6 HCP)

                Opener must break off relays at this point with less than 20 HCP.

                                NON-RELAYS:  see above for 1C-1D continuations

                                .1S second negative. if balanced:  0-5, 0-2 ctrls;  if unbal:  0-5 HCP, 0-1 controls

                                Opener must have a near-GF hand or 21+ balanced to relay at this point.

                                                NON-RELAYS:  2C/D/H/S natural, 1NT is the relay!

                                                [CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE: (book)]

                                                                [2N] C + major 5-5 (3D asks)

                                                                [3C/D/H] lower of touching 5-5

                                                                [3S]  S + D 5-5

                                                .2C  third negative.  0-4 HCP, 0-1 controls

                                                Opener must break off relays at this point with less than a GF hand.


                                                                                [2H/S/3C/D]  natural, invitational

                                                                                [2N]  21-22 balanced

                                                                                [3H] H+ minor 5-5 GF (3S asks lo/hi)

                                                                                [3S] S + lower 5-5 GF (3N asks suit)

                                                                                [4C] minors 5-5 GF

                                                                .2H fourth negative.  0-2 HCP (wasteland)

                                                                                [CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:  (book)]

                                                                                                [2N]  23-24 balanced

                                                                                                [3 suit]  GF natural

                                                                                .2NT unbalanced, or 4m333

                                                                                                .3D 4m333 (.3S 4c  .3N 4d)

                                                                                                .3H normal distribution matrix

                                                                                .3C/D/H normal bal structure

                                                                                .3S/N 5-6 clubs/diamonds [4C relay]

                                                                                                .4D 5-card suit (.4S/N/5C Z lo/mid/hi doub)

                                                                                                .4H/S/N Z 6-card suit, lo/mid/hi tripleton

                                                                .2S unbalanced:  3-4 HCP (now .3C, .3D normal, .3H+ like .2H+)

                                                                .2NT+ balanced:  3-4 HCP

                                                                .4M KJTxxx suit

                                                .2D  balanced:  5 HCP or A

                                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                                .2S A

                                                                                .4M AJTxxx suit

                                                                .2N any, 4m333/5m332 (checkback?)

                                                                .3C+ 5 HCP

                                                                .4M KQJxxx suit

                                                .2H+ unbalanced: 5 HCP

                                .1NT  7-9 HCP, 1 control

                                                .2D balanced

                                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                                .2S  7 HCP

                                                                .2N 4m333/5m332 any (checkback?)

                                                                .3C+ 9 HCP

                                                .2H+  unbalanced, 7-9 HCP

                                .2C  then 2H+ unbalanced:  A

                                .2D balanced:  2 controls, 6 HCP

                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                .2S  KK

                                                .2N 5m332/4m333, any (checkback?)

                                                3C+  AQ

                                .2H+ unbalanced: 2 controls, 6 HCP

                1H  Strongest Response:  4 controls - (at least 10 HCP if balanced), or 5 controls balanced

                                [CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:  (book)]

                                                [1N] 18-19 balanced, wanting to declare (sys on)

                                                [2C/D/H/S] natural

                                                [2N+] 5-5 2-suiters as in 1C-1D-1H-1S-2N+ (above), Reverse Relay available

                                .1NT  if balanced: 5 controls;  if unbalanced: 4 controls 12+ HCP

                                                .2D  balanced:  5 controls

                                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                                .2S  bare 5 controls

                                                .2N 5m332/4m333, any (checkback)

                                                                .3C+ 5 controls plus queens(s)

                                                .2H+  unbalanced: 4 controls, 12+ HCP

                                                .2NT then 3H+  unbalanced: 7 controls, or 5 controls with 4Q

                                .2C  unbalanced:  4 controls, 10 HCP, or 6 controls plus 2+ queens

                                                .2H+  4 controls, 10 HCP

                                                .2NT then 3H+  6 controls plus 2+ Queens

                                .2D  balanced:  4 controls

                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                .2S 4 controls, 10 HCP

                                                .2N 5m332/4m333 , any (checkback)

                                                .3C+ 4 controls, 12+ HCP

                                .2H+  unbalanced:  AA

                                .2NT then 3H+ unbalanced  6 controls +  one Queen

                1S  Mild positive:  AK, AQQ, or KKQ

                                [CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:  (book) break often with unbalanced hands]

                                                [2C/D/H/S]  natural

                                                [2N+]  5-5 2-suiters, NOT GF  (as over 1C-1D-1H-1S, above) Rev. Relay avail.

                                .2C  unbalanced:  8 HCP, or bare 6 controls (no queens)

                                                .2H+  8 HCP

                                                .2NT then 3H+  6 controls no Queens

                                .2D balanced:  7-8 HCP

                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                .2S  7 HCP

                                                .2N 5m332/4m333, any (checkback)

                                                .3C+  8 HCP

                                .2H+  unbalanced:  7 HCP

                                .2NT  3-suiter 7 HCP, or all balanced 6+ controls

                                                .3D 3-suiter (see later)

                                                .3H then 3NT+ 7 controls

                                                .3S 6ctrls, no Q's [3N relay]

                                                .3N 6ctrls, 1/2/3 Q,s (as 2NT bal structure)

                                                                after completion of dist, checkback (.(1) 6ctrl no Q, .(2) Z 6ctrl 1+Q)

                                                .4C+  6 controls plus queens (16+ HCP)  (as 3C+ bal structure)

                1NT  3 controls (better than AK) - 9+ HCP balanced or 11+ unbalanced

                                .2D  balanced:  3 ctrls, 9+ HCP

                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see end)

                                                .2S  9 HCP

                                                .2N 4m333/5m332, any (checkback)

                                                .3C+  11+ HCP

                                .2H+  unbalanced:  3 controls, 11+ HCP

                                .2NT  then 3H+ unbalanced:  5 controls 2+ Queens

                2C 3 controls - 9 HCP unbalanced

                                .2H+  3 ctrls 9 HCP

                                .2NT then 3H+  5 ctrls 1 Queen

                2D Balanced:  either a) 2 controls 10+ HCP, or b) 4 controls 8 HCP

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE FOR 2/3 SUITERS (see BALANCED section)

                                .2S  AA

                                                .4M AJTxxx suit

                                .2N 4m333/5m332, any (checkback)

                                .3C+ 2 controls, 10-12 HCP

                2H+  Unbalanced:  2 controls, 10+ HCP (except 2N, which may be unbal. 5 ctrls, no Queens)





5C, 0Q                    2N

5C, 1Q                    2C.2N

5C, 2+Q                  1N.2N

6C, 0Q                    1S.2C.2N

6C, 1Q                    1H.2N

6C, 2+Q                  1H.2C.2N

7C                           1H.1N.2N

Over these, responder bids 3H+ over the 3C relay, which all mean the same as 2H+, one level higher.



6C, 0Q    or           

6C, 1+Q                  1S.2N.3S+  balanced structure one level higher (3S = min, i.e. 0Q, 3N = 4m333 5m322)

7C                           1S.2N.3H.3N+ balanced structure one level higher, no min/max


REVERSE RELAY (Responder asks Opener) FOR 5-5 BREAKS (book):

Over opener's 5-5 breaks after a 1H or 1S response to 1C, responder may RELAY.

a)  The relay is the cheapest bid in one of opener's known short suits.

b)  First:  distribution  (hi sing, lo sing, hi void, lo void Z)

c)  Second:  Controls (5, 6, 7, 8 Z)

d)  Last:   DCB



3. The Shape-Showing Relays


After emerging accurately from the control-showing matrix, it's time to show our shape.  These are much easier to learn than the control-showing matrix (big cheer!).


Note that a 'Z' after a bid indicates a 'zoom' or 'run-on' to the DCB stage.  That shape is assumed whatever is cue-bid.


Balanced Hands


Balanced hands go through 2D usually.  They include all 4333/4432/5332 and 6332 shapes.


If 2S is a control-showing bid, then what do the shapes indicated by 2NT do with such controls?  The answer is that all are lumped into the 2NT bid, and a checkback is available.



After .2D

                2H = normal relay

                2S/NT/3C/3D = club/diamond/heart/spades splinter

                3H = 2-suiter with hearts and a minor (after relay, 3NT = C, 4C = D)

                3S = 2-suiter spades and another (relay 4C for other suit)

                4m = 2-suited minors

                3NT to play!

                (Book version 2S/3C/3D = splinter, 2NT = bal no slam, 3H = spl 3-4 spades, 3S = h spl 5 spades)



..2NT 5332/4333 with a minor;  the 2S control showing bids with these shapes are lumped in

                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE (3D "weak relay",  3M "stopper ask oM")


                                                .3H  non 2S bid, 5 clubs or 4333 in minor

                                                                .3NT  4333 with a minor

                                                                                .4D 3334

                                                                                .4H Z  3343

                                                                .4C, .4D, .4H Z  5 clubs, doubleton diamond, heart, spade

                                                .3S non 2S bid, 5 diamonds; 3NT now by opener is to play

                                                                .4D, .4H, .4S Z  doubleton club, hearts, spades

                                                .3NT 2S type bid (weak)


                                                .3S half-stop in s    .3N stop oM or 4333  .4m nat no stop

                .3D (after strong 3C ask)  5332 with clubs

                                .3S, .3NT, .4C doubleton spade, heart, diamond

                .3H 5332 with diamonds, not doubleton spade

                                .3NT, .4C  doubleton heart, club

                .3S  5332 with diamonds, doubleton spade

                .3NT  4333 with a minor

                                .4D  4c 333

                                .4H Z  4d 333


.3C  any 4432

                .3H 4 hearts, not 4 spades

                                .3NT doubleton spade

                                                .4D 4 clubs  .4H Z  4 diamonds

                                .4C 3442

                                .4D Z 3424

                .3S 4 spades, not 4 hearts

                                ..4D  4234   ..4H  4243  ..4S  4324  ..4NT Z  4342

                .3NT 4-4 minors

                                .4D 2344   .4H Z  3244

                .4C  4-4 majors

                                .4H 4423   .4S Z  4432

.3D  any 5-6 hearts, or 4333 with a major

                .3S 5 hearts

                                ..4D  3532   ..4H  3523  ..4S Z  2533

                .3NT 4333 with a major

                                .4D 4333   .4H  3433

                .4C  6 hearts,  2623  

                .4D  6 hearts, 2632  

                .4H  6 hearts, 3622

.3H  5-6 spades

                .3NT  5233

                .4C   5332/5323

                                .4H 5323   .4S Z  5332

                .4D  6 spades, 6223

                .4H  6 spades, 6232

                .4S   6 spades, 6322

.3S  6 clubs

                ..4D  2236  ..4H  2326   ..4S Z  3226

.3NT  6 diamonds

                .4D  2263  .4H  2362    .4S Z  3262


.4C  6 clubs

                .4H 2236  .4S  2326  .4NT Z  3226

.4D  6 diamonds

                .4S  2263  .4NT  2326  .5C Z  3262

.4H 6 hearts

                .4NT 2623  .5C  2632  .5D Z  3622

.4S 6 spades

                .5C 6223   .5D  6232  .5H Z  6223





.2H long spades, long clubs, or 5-4 minors

                .2NT  clubs longest, or 5-4 minors

                                .3D  minors

                                                .3S  5431, with minors and short spades

                                                                ..4D  1345 longer clubs  ..4H Z  1354 longer diamonds

                                                .3NT  5431, with minors and short hearts

                                                                .4D  3145 longer clubs  .4H Z  3154 longer diamonds

                                                .4C  6-4 with diamonds

                                                                .4H  1246  .4S  2146  .4NT  0346  .5C Z  3046

                                                .4D  6-5

                                                                .4S  1156  .4NT  0256  .5C Z  2056

                                                .4NT  8-4

                                                                ..5H  0148  ..5S Z-6C  1048

                                                .5C  7-4

                                                                .5H  1147  .5S  0247  .5NT Z-6C  2047

                                                .5D  7-5

                                                                .5S  0157  .5NT Z-6C  1057

                                                .5H  7-6

                                .3H  5+ clubs, 4+ hearts, longer clubs

                                                .3NT  2425

                                                .4C  6-4

                                                                .4H  1426  .4S  2416  .4NT  0436  .5C Z  3406

                                                .4D  1435 short spades

                                                .4H  6-5

                                                                .4NT  1516  .5C  0526  .5D Z  2506

                                                .4S  3415 short diamonds

                                                .4NT  8-4

                                                                ..5H  0418  ..5S Z-6C  1408

                                                .5C  7-4

                                                                .5H  1417  .5S  0427  .5NT Z-6C  2407

                                                .5H  7-5

                                                                .5NT  0517  .6C  1507

                                                .5S  7-6

                                .3S  5+ clubs, 4+ spades, longer clubs

                                                ..4D  4135 short hearts 

                                                ..4H  4315 short diamonds

                                                ..4S  6-5

                                                                .5C  5116  .5D  5026  .5H Z  5206

                                                ..4NT  8-4

                                                                ..5H  4018  ..5S Z-6C  4108

                                                ..5C  7-4

                                                                .5H  4117  .5S  4027  .5NT Z-6C  4207

                                                ..5S  7-5

                                                                .6C  5017  .6D Z-6S  5107

                                                ..5NT  7-6

                                .3NT  4225 (spades, clubs)

                                .4C  6-4 clubs-spades

                                                .4H  4126  .4S  4216  .4NT  4036  .5C Z  4306

                                .4D  7-8 club singlesuiter, short diamonds

                                .4H  7-8 club single-suiter, short hearts

                                .4S  7-8 club single-suiter, short spades

                                .4NT  7-8 club single-suiter, diamond void, extras

                                .5C  7-8 clubs single-suiter, heart void, extras*

                                .5D Z-6C  7-8 clubs single-suiter, spade void, extras

                                *contradictory to above:

                                .5C  8311/9211

                                                .5H  1-1 s-h  .5S  1-1 s-d  .5NT Z-6C  1-1 h-d

                .3C  5+ spades, 4+ clubs, longer spades unless 5-5

                                .3H 5314, diamond shortage

                                .3S  6 spades, 4 clubs

                                                .4C  6124  .4D  6214  .4H  6034  .4S Z  6304 (hi s, low s, hi v, low v)

                                .3NT  5224

                                .4C  5-5 s-c

                                                .4H  5125  .4S  5215   .4NT 5035  .5C Z  5305 (same scheme as above)

                                .4D  5134, heart shortage

                                .4H  5404, diamond void

                                .4S  7-4 s-c

                                                .5C  7114  .5D  7024   .5H Z  7204

                                .4NT  8-4 s-c

                                                .5D  8014   .5H Z  8104

                                .5C  7-5 s-c

                                                .5H  7015   .5S Z-6S  7105

                                .5D  7006

                .3D  5+ spades, 4+ diamonds, longer spades unless 5-5

                                .3S  6s-4d

                                                .4C  6124  .4D  6214   .4H  6034  .4S Z  6304

                                .3NT 5242

                                .4C  5143, short hearts

                                .4D  5-5 s-d

                                                .4S  5152  .4NT  5251  .5C  5053  .5D Z  5350

                                .4H  5341, short clubs

                                .4S  7-4 s-d

                                                .5C  7141  .5D  7042   .5H Z  7240

                                .4NT  8s-4d

                                                .5D  8041   .5H Z  8140

                                .5D   7s-5d

                                                .5S  7051   .5NT Z-6S  7150

                                .5H  7060

                .3H 5+ spades, 4+ hearts, longer spades

                                .3NT  5422

                                .4C  5413 short diamonds

                                .4D  5431 short clubs

                                .4H  6-4

                                                ..5C  6412  ..5D  6421  ..5H  6403  ..5S Z  6430

                                .4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  8401 .5H Z  8410

                                .5D  5440 short clubs

                                .5H  7-5

                                                ..6C  7501   ..6D  7510

                                .5S  7-4

                                                .6C  7411  .6D  7402  .6H  7420

                .3S  6+ spades, single-suiter

                                .4C  7-8 spades

                                                .4H  7222  .4S  short clubs  .4NT  short diamonds  .5C  short hearts

                                                .5D void clubs, extras  .5H  void diamonds, extras  .5S Z  void hrts, xtras

                                .4D  6331 short clubs

                                .4H  6313 short diamonds

                                .4S  6133 short hearts

                .3NT  5-5 spades-hearts

                                .4D  5512  .4H  5521  .4S  5503  .4NT Z  5530

                .4C  6-5 spades-clubs

                                .4H  6115  .4S  6025  .4NT Z  6205

                .4D  6-5 spades-diamonds

                                .4S  6151  .4NT  6052  .5C Z  6250

                .4H  6-5 spades-hearts

                                ..5C  6511  ..5D  6502  ..5H Z  6520

                .4S   8113, 9112

                                .5C  1-1 h-d  .5D  1-1 h-c  .5H Z  1-1 d-c

                .4NT not used

                .5C  6-6 spades-clubs

                                .5H  6016  .5S Z  6106

                .5D  6-6 spades-diamonds

                                .5S  6061  5NT Z-6S  6160

                .5H  6-6 spades-hearts

                                ..6C  6601  ..6D Z-6H  6610

                .6H  7-6 spades-hearts


.2S  5+ hearts

                .3C  hearts and clubs, hearts longer or 5-5

                                .3H  6-4

                                                .3NT  1624  .4C  2614  .4D  0634  .4H Z  3604

                                .3S  3514, short diamonds

                                .3NT  2524

                                .4C  5-5

                                                .4H  1525  .4S  2515  .4NT  0535  .5C Z  3505

                                .4D  1534, short spades

                                .4H  7-4

                                                .4NT  1714  .5C  0724  .5D Z  2704

                                .4S  4504, short diamonds

                                .4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  0814  .5H Z  1804

                                .5C  7-5

                                                .5H  0715  .5S Z-6H  1705

                                .5D  7-6

                .3D  hearts and diamonds, hearts longer or 5-5

                                .3S  3541 short clubs

                                .3NT  2542

                                .4C  1543 short spades

                                .4D  5-5

                                                .4S  1552  .4NT  2551  .5C  0553  .5D Z  3550

                                .4H  6-4

                                                .4NT  1642  .5C  2641  .5D  0643  .5H Z  3640

                                .4S  4540, short clubs

                                .4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  0841  .5H Z  1840

                                .5C  0544, short spades

                                .5D  7-5

                                                ..5NT  0751  ..6C Z-6H  1750

                                .5H  7-6

                .3H  6+ hearts, single-suiter

                                .3NT  7-8 hearts

                                                .4D  7222  .4H  short clubs  .4S  short diam.  .4NT  short spades

                                                .5C  void c, extras  .5D  void d, extras  .5H Z  void s, extras

                                .4C  3631, short clubs

                                .4D  3613, short diamonds

                                .4H  1633, short spades

                .3S  5+ hearts, 4+ spades, longer hearts

                                .4C  4513 short diamonds

                                .4D  4531 short clubs

                                .4H  6-4

                                                .4NT  4612  .5C 4621  .5D  4603  .5H Z  4630

                                .4S  6-5

                                                .5C  5611  .5D  5602  .5H Z  5620

                                .4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  4801  .5H Z  4810

                                .5H  7-4

                                                .5NT  4711  .6C  4702  .6D Z-6H  4720

                                .5NT  7-6

                .3NT  4522

                .4C  6-5 with clubs

                                .4H  1615  .4S  0625  .4NT Z  2605

                .4D  6-5 with diamonds

                                ..4NT  1651  ..5C  0652  ..5D Z  2650

                .4H  8+ hearts, 1-1 somewhere

                                .4NT  1-1 s-d  .5C  1-1 s-c  .5D Z 1-1 d-c

                .4S  7-5 with spades

                                .5C  5701  .5D Z  5710

                .5C  6-6 with clubs

                                .5H  0616  .5S Z-6H  1606

                .5D  6-6 with diamonds

                                ..5NT  0661  ..6C Z-6D  1660


.2NT  4441's, or 0445 (with long minor), or extra controls

                .3D  3-suiter  (exception:  see further down in certain cases)

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE (long minor)

                                                [3S] shows diamonds   [book: clubs]

                                                                .3N short diamonds (no conts)

                                                                .4C club splinter

                                                                                .4H  4441  .4S Z  4450, long diamonds

                                                                .4D heart splinter

                                                                                .4S  4144  .4NT  4045 long clubs   .5C Z  4054 long diamonds

                                                                .4H  spade splinter, 4441

                                                                .4S  spade splinter, 0445 long clubs

                                                                .4NT Z  spade splinter, 0454, long diamonds

                                                [3N] shows clubs [book: diamonds]

                                                                .pass short clubs

                                                                .4C diamond splinter

                                                                                .4H  4414  .4S Z 4405, long clubs

                                                                .4D heart splinter

                                                                                .4S  4144  .4NT  4045 long clubs  .5C Z  4054 long diamonds

                                                                .4H  spade splinter, 1444

                                                                .4S  spade splinter, 0445 long clubs

                                                                .4NT Z  spade splinter, 0454 long diamonds

                                .3S  heart splinter

                                                ..4D  4144  ..4H  4045 long clubs  ..4S Z  4054 long diamonds

                                .3NT  spade splinter

                                                .4D  1444  ..4H  0445 long clubs  .4S Z  0454 long diamonds

                                .4C  club splinter, long diamonds

                                                .4H  4441  .4S Z  4450

                                .4D  diamond splinter, 4441

                                .4H Z  diamond splinter, long clubs, 4405

                .3H+  extra controls unbalanced, respond like 1 level below



EXCEPTION: When 1) auction begins 1C-1D,  or 2) responder is PH (except 1C-2N as PH), or

3) responder shows extra values(1C-1H-1S-2NT-3C-3NT-4C-), or 4) in competition (1C-[1S]-2NT-3C-3NT-4C-), 3D immediately shows shapes as extra controls are impossible.  Therefore:


                .3D  club splinter

                                .3S  4441  .3NT Z  4450 long diamonds

                .3H diamond splinter

                                .3NT  4414  .4C Z  4405

                .3S  heart splinter

                                ..4D  4144  ..4H  4045  ..4S Z  4054

                .3NT spade splinter

                                .4D  4144  .4H 0445  .4S Z  0454



.3C  5+ diamonds

                .3H  5+ diamonds, 4+ hearts, longer diamonds

                                .3NT  2452

                                .4C  1453, short spades

                                .4D  6-4

                                                .4S  1462  .4NT  2461  .5C  0463  .5D Z  3460

                                .4H  6-5

                                                .4NT  1561  .5C  0562  .5D Z 2560

                                .4S  3451 short clubs

                                .4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  0481  .5H Z  1480

                                .5D  7-4

                                                .5S  1471  .5NT  0472  .6C Z-6D  2470

                                .5H  7-5

                                                .5NT  0571  .6C Z-6D  1570

                                .5S  7-6

                .3S  5+ diamonds, 4+ spades, longer diamonds, not 6-4 or 5-5

                                ..4D  4153 short hearts

                                ..4H  4351 short clubs

                                ..4S  6-5

                                                .5C  5161  .5D  5062  .5H Z  5260

                                ..4NT  8-4

                                                .5D  4081  .5H Z  4180

                                ..5D 7-4

                                                .5H  4171  .5S  4072  .6C Z-6D  4270

                                ..5S  7-5

                                                .6C  5071  .6D 5170

                                ..5NT  7-6

                .3NT  4252, with spades

                .4C  and clubs, not 5-5 or 6-4 or 5-4

                                .4H  6-5

                                                .4NT  1165  .5C  0265  .5D Z  2065

                                .4S  7-4

                                                .5C  1174  .5D  0274  .5H Z-6D  2074

                                .4NT  7-5

                                                .5D  0175  .5H Z-6D  1075

                                .5C  8-4

                                                ..5S  0184  ..5NT Z-6D  1084

                .4D  6-4 with spades

                                .4S  4162  .4NT  4261  .5C  4063  .5D Z  4360

                .4H  7-8 diamonds, short clubs

                .4S  7-8 diamonds, short hearts

                .4NT  7-8 diamonds, short spades

                .5C  7-8 diamonds, club void, extras

                .5D  7-8 diamonds, heart void, extras*

                .5H Z-6D  7-8 diamonds, spade void, extras

                *contradictory to above

                .5D 8-9 diamonds, 1-1 somewhere

                                .5S  1-1 s-h  .5NT  1-1 s-c  .6C Z-6D  1-1 h-c


.3D  6331/7222 with a minor

                [book: CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE: look for super minor fit

                                3S/NT shows clubs/diamonds

                                                .P/3N no fit .4C 6c M spl(hi/lo) .4D fit, spl om .4H/S 6d hi/lo M spl]

                .3S  6331 short spades

                                ..4D  1336 long clubs  ..4H Z  1363 long diam.

                .3NT  6331 short hearts

                                .4D  3136 long clubs  ..4H Z  3163 long diam.

                .4C  3316, long clubs, short diamonds

                .4D  3361, long diamonds, short clubs

                .4H  2227 long clubs

                .4S Z  2272 long diamonds

.3H  5-5 in minors

                .3NT  1255  .4C  2155  .4D  0355  .4H Z  3055

.3S  6 diamonds, 4 clubs

                ..4D  1264  ..4H  2164  ..4S  0364  ..4NT Z  3064

.3NT  5422 with minors

                .4D  2245  .4H Z  2254

.4C  7+ card semi-solid (3 of top 4) minor suit with shortness

                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE(5C/D = p/c)

                .4H  minor splinter  .4S  heart splinter  .4NT  spade splinter  .5C  minor void with extras

                .5D  heart void with extras  .5H Z-long suit  spade void with extras

.4D  7+ card semi-solid major suit, with shortness (4OM is the relay)

                Step 1:  club splinter  2:  diam. splinter  3:  major splinter  4: club void with extras

                5:  diamond void with extras  6: Z-long suit major void with extras

.4H  solid suit (AKQxxxx) with singleton (4S relay unless spades the suit, then 4NT is)

                .4NT  low singleton  .5C  middle singleton  .5D Z-long suit  high singleton

.4S  solid suit, with void

                .5C  low void  .5D  middle void  .5H Z-long suit  high void


** Any NT bid by opener, immediate or delayed (but not the 4NT relays above), asks partner to bid his suit.  Must play in solid suit or NT.


** Where responder CANNOT have a solid suit, .4X = natural semi-solid with shortness, relay for hi-mid-low shortness



Sign-Offs by Opener


Opener eventually knows where to play.


Opener may sign-off by:

1.  bidding a non-relay at game level (exception: 4N-Q asking or quantitative).  If responder continues, natural bidding.


2.  relaying into a 6+ crd suit at the game or higher level.  Responder is permitted to bid over any signoff at any level with useful unshown values, especially in trumps.


3.  relaying into 3NT.


                                - responder has shown a 6+ card spade suit

                                - repsonder has shown 5+ hearts and 4+ spades

                                - responder has shown extra controls

                Responder can pull  3NT if he wants:

                                A.  If responder has shown only ONE suit:

                                                1.  rebid of suit shows extra length

                                                2.  new suit shows 6+/5

                                B.  If responder has shown TWO suits:

                                                1.  rebid of first suit shows extra length

                                                2.  rebid of second suit shows 6+/5

                                C.  IMPOSSIBLE pull shows void with one- or two-suiter whichever shown already.


Queen Asking  (After 1C or 1NT opening)


Rarely, opener may want to be sure which specific queens responder has.


4NT is Q asking if:

                1.  not bid as a relay

                2.  distribution is complete

                3.  responder's last bid was 4C, 4D, or 4H

                4.  responder has implied AT LEAST one queen

4NT is not Q asking if:

                1.  partner cannot have any queens... then is SIGNOFF

                2.  after 1C opening, distribution is not complete, then is SIGNOFF

                3.  it is a  jump to 4NT  , then is QUANTITATIVE


4NT?  Q ask

                .5C  red Q (or 3 J's, no Q's in balanced strong hand)

                                .5H  diamond Q (or 3 J's)

                                                .5NT  3 J's  .6C  diamond Q

                                .5S  heart Q

                .5D  black Q

                                .5S  club Q  .5NT  spade Q

                .5H  2 Q's, not the heart Q

                                .5NT  minor Q's  .6C   spade-diamond Q's  .6D  spade-club Q's

                .5S  heart Q and minor Q

                                .6C  diamond Q   .6D  club Q

                .5NT  major Q's

                .6C  3 Q's


When responder has 3Q's and cannot have just one:

                .5C  3Q, missing black Q

                                .5H  missing spade Q  .5S  missing club Q

                .5D  3Q, missing red Q

                                .5S  missing diamond Q  .5NT  missing heart Q


When extra controls are shown:

                5NT = Q ask, but 6 level non-forcing unless continuation of queen ask (further relay)




4.  Denial Cue-Bidding (DCB)


NB:  See end of this section (4) for book's 'Variable' Cue-bidding style


                The final general stage of relay auctions is Denial Cue-Bidding.  In it, the suits are scanned first for A/K's, and next for Q's, then J's, then T's.  Here is where knowledge of responder's honors from the early relays comes back to help.  Responder bypasses a suit in which she holds the requested card, and stops in the first suit in which she lacks the requested card.  Thus if 4C is a relay, 4S shows the requested cards in diamonds and hearts (since they were skipped), but denies the card in spades (since they are not skipped).  Opener could relay with 4NT again, to scan starting with clubs...  Points of interest are singletons, voids, the NT suit, and fully-scanned suits.  What happens to those holdings in the scan?


DCB Rules:


1.  NT is the rape suit (RS), which is the suit bid by the relayer (e.g. 4H[relay]-  4S = spades, 4NT = hearts)


2.  Once a suit has been denied in, it is a RS for the suit bid by relayer.


3.  Singleton suits are RS on 1st round, but natural on 2nd round.  Then once all A's and K's are shown, a singleton is RS for queens, but natural on the next round.


4.  Void suits are always RS.


5.  If a RS cannot be for the relayer's bid because a) that suit has already been described, or b)  it is a singleton on the first round, or c)  it is a void, then it is RS for the suit below it (unless that second suit is also ineligible for one of the above reasons, upon which it is the suit below that, etc..)






7.  Relays are made beyond 5NT when partner has shown a freak hand.  If so, then the lowest 6 level bid is a relay if partner has 2 cards or less in that suit.  Last relay to partner's freak is a grand slam try.


8.  Relay responses may be made up to 7C or as high as judgement dicatates.


9.  Do not count a singleton king or queen as a control or HCP at any time with a freak.


10.  If the relayer skips one step below game, it asks responder to go on to the next series of responses.  So DCB is begun before distribution is complete, like if 4C instead of a shape-asking 3S is bid, for example.


11.  A DCB in a solid suit denies the J.


12.  A DCB in a known SS+ suit denies AKQxxxx (solid suit)


13.  An initial denial cue bid either denies the ace or king, or shows both the ace and king.


14.  Order of DCB when raped and natural suits are adjacent:  a) Never natural then RS, but b) can be RS then NAT.


15.  After 1C, with 6+ controls-slam force.  Therefore, game bid in 6+ card suit is relay.


Exceptional DCB Rules (rare):


1.  When aces are not DCB:

                After 1C, a) with 6 controls, DCB for kings  b)  with 7 controls, DCB for queens


2.  When aces and kings are not DCB:

                With 7 controls after a 1C opening. (12 are held, known)


3.  When aces, kings, and queens are not DCB:

                After 1NT, with 8 controls, DCB for jacks


4.  When queens are not DCB:

                After 1NT, when both partners know opener cannot have any queens, DCB for jacks

                After 1C, when responder cannot have any queens, DCB for J's


5.  With a void that is known, DCB in a logical fashion.


Exclusionary Grand Slam Force(EGSF)


Jump to 5NT by opener is EGSF.  Also over 5-level bids where no other meaning makes sense. 

Responder bids:


6C  without 2/3 honors in clubs

6D  with 2/3 honors in clubs, but not 2/3 honors in diamonds

6H  with 2/3 honors in clubs and diamonds, but not in hearts

6S  with 2/3 honors in clubs, diamonds, and hearts, but not spades

6NT   with 2/3 honors in all suits.


Over any 6-bid, opener bids a suit which is to be passed unless responder has 2/3 honors, in which case she should raise to 7.  Where the singleton is known, responder should bypass that suit with a singleton A/K/Q.  Also, accept 7 if partner signs off in a suit that you have a singleton honor.


Alternative Cue-bidding style -

Variable Cue-bidding (VCB)


From the book, this is a different suit order from DCB above.  The efficiency is untested.


Responder should assume that opener knows his controls.  Thus, if holding an Ace and a King, then after showing (or implied necessarily after 3 suits [4th is known by deduction]) these controls, immediately Queens are next examined.  Thus, very often less than 4 suits are in the first (A/K) scan.  This probably is efficient.


Here is how the responder determines the order.


Whenever the level (->A/K -> Q -> J...) advances for any reason:

a) Select those suits in which he might have a card to be shown at the current level (aces are not shown if the partnership is known to have all of them).

b) Order these suits by the number of cards in the suit, longest suit first.  If the distributional information is incomplete, all suits are assumed to contain as many cards as is consistent with previous bidding, even if this would result in a 14+ card hand.  (Thus, if responder is 4423 or 4432, clubs and diamonds are of equal length)  If two or more suits contain equal length, order them as follows:

i) Where it is possible to deny a specific card in a suit by bidding that suit, do so.

ii) The remaining bids refer to the remaining suits, up the line.  Thus, in the above example, if the relay were 4D, 4H would refer to H and 4S to S.  (4N and 5C) would refer to (C and D), with 5C referring to C and 4N therefore referring to D.  But if the relay had been 4S, 4N would refer to H, and 5C to S (the majors are shown up the line), with 5D referring to D and 5H to C.

c) Finally, if any bid below 5N refers to the suit above it (e.g. D referring to H), interchange that step with the one above it.  The highest step is to be exchanged with the first step of the next level (A/K with Q, i.e.) if necessary.




1.  Relay :  4NT

Hand Pattern:  5D-(332), treat like 3353 since exact location of doubleton unknown here.

5C refers to D

5H               H

5S                S, leaving

5D               C

but now switch 5C and 5D (5C refers to denomination above it) to get:

5C = clubs

5D = diamonds

5H = hearts

5S = spades


2.  Relay: 5C

Hand Pattern:  2-4-3-4 exactly, and the responder has already denies club or heart controls...

5D refers to D (next after C and H, described in previous cue-bidding as the problem says)

5H                S

now up a level to queens

5S                C queen

5N               H queen

but now switch 5H and 5S (5H refers to the denomination above it) to get:

5D = diamonds

5H = club queen

5S = spades

If the responder bids 5H, then over the 5S relay, 5N refers to the spade control (remnant from level 1) and higher bids refer to queens (other than the club queen).




5.  Handling Interference



The general  approach is quite natural.  Bids that are stolen are recovered with a Pass or X.  Interference of a X or one-step actually gain us some room.


Relays are broken by an interfering bid taking up 3 or more steps. For example, ...3C[relay]-(3S) is 3 steps (3D, 3H, 3S), and this breaks relays. Revert to natural bidding, and penalty doubles in GF situations.


The theme is that if we can't show our responses at or below the normal level, relays are off (hence the 3-step rule from the P and X/XX to recover the stolen 2 steps).


Interference by 2nd hand of X, 1-step, or 2-steps is handled thusly:

over X: P = relay-suit + 4 response, then opener X's as relay

XX = relay-suit + 5 response, then opener relays

bids = normal, except those responses in the P and XX are now pulled down an entire level ("telescoped")!

e.g. ...3D[rel]-(X)-? 3H = 3H, 3S = 3S, 3N = 3N, [P = 4C, XX = 4D, 4C = 5C, 4D = 5D], 4H = 4H...

N.B. after a telescoped bid, the subsequent relay and responses all come out exactly one level lower.

over 1-step: P = relay-suit +5 response

X = 1-step response (stolen bid), then opener bids 1-step as relay

bids = normal, except for one pulled-down response

e.g. ....3D[rel]-(3H)-? X = 3H, 3S = 3S, 3N = 3N, 4C = 4C, [P = 4D, 4D = 5D,] 4H = 4H...

over 2-step: P = cheapest response (and now opener X's as relay)

X = stolen-bid (and now opener relay's as normal)

bids = as normal

e.g. ... 3D[rel]-(3S)-? P = 3H, X = 3S, 3N+ = normal


Now, over to 4th hand interference:

Over interference over responder, relayer is not constricted to show any shape, which means the X (or XX) is now penalty/to play. However, relayer usually passes as a relay if relays aren't broken.

over X: XX = to play

pass = relay (then XX = 1-step and bid = 2-step)

e.g. 3H[response]-(X)-P[relay]; (P)-? 3N = 3N, 4C = 4C, 4D = 4D, [XX = 4H, 3S = 4S, 4H = 5H, 4S = 5S,] 4N = 4N

over 1-step: X = penalty

pass = relay (then X = 1-step and bid = 2-step)

e.g. 3C[response]-(3D)-P[relay]; (P)-? 3H = 3H, 3S = 3S, 3N = 3N, 4C = 4C, [X = 4D, 4D = 5D], 4H = 4H

over 2-step: X = penalty

pass = relay (then X = stolen bid, bid = normal)

e.g. 3D[response]-(3S)-P[relay]; (P)-? X = 3S, 3N = 3N...


Multiple interference -  relays may still be on:

If the golden rule that any relay or response is possible at or below the normal level, relays are still on.





now a normal 1C-1S-1N auction would have 2C, 2D as the first steps.  Here, P by responder is 2C, and X is 2D, and 2H+ is normal.  The double gained us some possible telescoping, but the 2D took it away again.  Yet relays are still on.  Had the overcall been 2H instead of 2D, relays would be broken, since there is no way to show the 2C response to the 1N relay.  Count steps on your fingers if necessary.



Over X, 2 bids are telescoped.

Over 1-step, 1 bid is telescoped.

Over 2-step, no bids are telescoped.

Over 3+ step, relays are off.


The suit first selected to be telescoped is always the relay suit, or the "would have relayed in this" suit, as the case may be. Any higher suits are handled with a stolen-bid X or pass. If 2 suits are telescoped (they X), then the relay suit and the one beneath that are telescoped.


If we lose the ability to show our responses at or below the normal level, relays are off.


Some more random examples:

a. 1C-(1D)-?

Is the natural one-step available? No, it's been stolen, so we X as stolen-bid for 1D.

So how many steps are telescoped? This is a 1-step overcall so 1 step is telescoped.

Which bid is that? We look at the relay suit (clubs). Thus, Pass = 2C, and, if necessary, 2C = 3C, and 3C = 4C. All other bids are untouched.


b. 2H[response]-(X); P[relay]-(P)-?

Is the natural one-step available? Yes, it would have been 2NT (over a 2S relay), so 2NT still means 2NT.

So how many steps are telescoped? This is a X, so 2 steps are telescoped.

Which bids are those? Look at the would-be relay suit: 2S. That is first telescoped, with a 2S bid to keep exactly one-level down (2S = 3S, 3S = 4S...). Next, look at the immediately next-lower suit: 2H. This is telescoped with a XX to allow partner to relay with 2S so everything is down exactly one level (XX = 3H, 3H = 4H...).


c. 1S[relay]-(2C)-?

Is the natural one-step available? No, 1NT is not available. In fact 2C is not available either. Thus, P = 1NT, and X = 2C. Stolen bids. This is the capacity of our ability to stay in relays. Any more would break them.

So how many bids are telescoped? This is a 2-step interference, so no bids are telescoped. Our entire structure remains as it is.


d. 1N[relay]-(X)-?

Is the natural one-step available? Definitely. 2C = 2C.

So how many bids are telescoped? This is a X, so 2 bids are telescoped.

Which bids are those? Look at the relay suit: 1N. XX is chosen since it will allow a 2C relay, keeping us exactly one-level lower (XX = 2N, 2N = 3N...). Next, look at the just-lower suit: 1S. This is bid with a Pass, so partner can XX as a relay and we can continue exactly one level lower (P = 2S, 2S = 3S...).





                All Club and NT bids are pulled down 1-level.

                XX = 2C (1D = R), 2C = 3C, etc....

                P  = 1NT (XX = R), 1NT = 2NT, 2NT = 3NT, etc...

                1D/H/S, 2D/H/S = normal



                All Club bids are pulled down one level.

                P  = 2C (X = R), 2C = 3C, etc...

                X = 1D (stolen bid)

                other non-Club bids  = normal




                Responder bids normally, except:

                P = 1D (X = R) stolen bid

                X = 1H stolen bid


See below for BOOK TREATMENT vs 1S+



                P = negative,  -/Q/QQ/3Q/K/KQ/KK/A/AQ

                X  balanced, 4Q, 2A, or 2+ controls and 9+ HCP

                                .2C  AA or 2 controls and 10+ HCP

                                                .2H  AA, then .2NT+

                                                .2S(2NT)  2 controls, 10-11 HCP, then .3C+

                                                .3C+(2NT)  2 controls, 12+ HCP

                                .2D  3 controls, 9+ HCP

                                                .2S(2NT)  3 controls, 9-10 HCP, then .3C+

                                                .3C+(2NT)  3 controls, 11+ HCP

                                .2H, then 2NT+  4 controls, not AA, Checkback after

                                .2S(2NT) then 3C+  5 controls, Checkback after

                                .3C+(2NT)  6-7 controls, Checkback after

                ** Checkback after 2NT continuations**

                .1NT  then .2H+ unbalanced, 4 controls, 10+ HCP, Checkback after (.2D = 3D)

                .2C then .2H+  unbalanced 3 controls, 9+ HCP, Checkback after

                .2D  balanced, AK/KKQ/AQQ

                                .2S(2NT) then 3C+  AK

                                .3C+(2NT)  KKQ/AQQ

                .2H+  unbalanced, AA/AK/KKQ+/AQQ+, or 2 controls and 10+ HCP (Checkback after)

                .2NT then 3H+ balanced,  5-7 controls, 11+ HCP



                X = negative, GF

2NSS = GF except rebid of 2NT or same suit

                NSS = nat, NSJ not game = splinter, 3N(J) = 20-21, 2N then 4N = 22-23


NSJ = weak (bids F)

2N = GF balanced, 8-11 or 14+(bid further)

Q = shortness, GF

3N(J) = 12-13

4N(over 3X) = 12-14 (NS F1)

                4N(over 4M) = takeout or 2-suited


Book Treatment of 1S+ competition:

vs 1S     

                P = negative, relays off

                X = like 1S (relay is 1N)

                1N = If balanced, 3 controls min or 4 controls max.  If unbalanced, 4 controls

                2C = 3 controls, unbalanced

                2D+ = unchanged

                Extra controls:

                                Over X : 2N = extra controls, balanced (then 3H = 6+ ctrls, 3S = 5 ctrls [0-1Q = min])

                                Unbalanced:  5 ctrls 0-1Q = 2N,  5 ctrls 2+Q = 2C.2N, 6 ctrls = 1N.2N, 7 ctrls = X.2C.2N



vs 1N

Pass = negative (op. X = GF balanced, or takeout, 2N = 20-22 bal, jump-cue = reveals psyche)

X = at least semi-bal

2S/4S = natural/slammish

2N = minors

3C = 5-5 clubs and a major (3D asks oM)

3D/H/S = 5-5 not clubs, not bid suit

3N = natural


vs 2C+

                Pass = negative (see vs 1N for opener's continuations)

                X = 4+ cards in bid suit (later cue = 6+ cards, psyche revealing)

                suit = 5+ cards

                cue = general positive not covered elsewhere, usually xx(x)

                2N = GF take-out

                jump-shift = 5-5 GF in the unbid suits

                jump-cue = 6+ cards natural (difference from X then cue...?)

                3N = usually 2 stoppers

                double jump-shift = powerful 1-suiter


Fourth-Hand Interference Over 1C-1D (or equivalent) (book)


X = take-out

P = May be a relay (X becomes takeout), otherwise shows no available call

NS = natural, 5+ cards

2N = 20-22

Cue = GF

Jump Cue = reveals a psyche


6. Summary of Checkbacks (not important)


In certain auctions, after distribution is complete, a relay is a checkback for extra HCP or controls.



                After 1C..2D.2NT, step 1 = 2S type, step 2 = extras, DCB

                After 1C and 4 negatives, step 1 = no queens, step 2 = one queen, DCB



                1C-(1S)-1NT...  step 1 = 10 HCP, step 2 = 12+ HCP, DCB


                1C-(1S)-2C...     step 1 = 9 HCP, step 2 = 11+ HCP, DCB


                1C-(1S)-2H...     step 1 = AA, step 2 = AK/AQQ/KQQ, step 3 = 2ctrls + 10+ HCP, DCB


                1C-(1S)-2NT...   step 1 = 5 controls, step 2 = 6 controls DCB for K's, step 3 = 7 ctrls DCB for Q's


3.  IN COMP-BALANCED:   1C-(1S)-X-1NT-?

                .2H...      step 1 = 10 HCP, step 2 = 12+ HCP, DCB


                .2S...       step 1 = 5 controls, no Q, step 2 = 5 controls, 1+ Q's


                .2NT...    step 1 = 5 controls, step 2 = 6 controls, step 3 = 7 controls DCB for Q's


                .3C...       step 1 = 6 controls, step 2 = 7 controls, DCB for Q's


Some checkbacks have 2 steps, and some have 3 steps, but none have any sub-steps, even if there is missing info.




1D Opening



- 12-14 balanced, 4+ cards

- 12-16 unbalanced with 4+ cards

- 3 cards if 4C-3-3-3 or 5C-3D-(3-2)


Responses to 1D


                1M = nf

                1N = 6-10

                2C = GF relay

                2D = invit relay

                2M/3C = 2-suiter invite

                2N = weak limit raise or WJS to clubs, or 6+D w/ major void QGF

                3D/3M/4m = pree

                3N = solid 7-card major suit

                4M/5m = nf


1. Non-Forcing Responses


Since all GF hands, and many invite hands, go through a 2C or 2D response, here we describe the common weak hands, or those invite hands without a major.



                1H Non-forcing

                                P = min, 3-card support

                                1S = natural (1N/2X = nf [1D-1H-1S-1N-3C = c splinter with 3h, forcing to 3D],

                                                                2N/3X = invit [3C shows 6+ clubs], 4m = void w/ 4s)

                                1N = 12-14 bal (2C/D/H = nf, 2S/N/3C/3D/3H = invit [3C shows 6+ c's],

                                                                3S = splinter w/ 5+ d's QGF)

                                2C = 9+ cards in minors (2D nf[3C=2245 max], 2H = nf, 2S/N/3m/3H = invit,

                                                                3S = splinter for clubs QGF)

                                2D = natural (2H = nf, 2S/N/3C/D/H = invit[clubs is 6+], 3S/4C = spl for d QGF)

                                2H = natural, occ. 3 cards (NS = GT, 2N/3D = invit, NSJ = void)

                                2S = artif, 3h-6d max (3D/H = nf, 2N = nf, 3C/S = stopper for NT) [book: 6d-4s max]

                                2N = 6+ d, max (3D/H = nf, 3C/S = stopper F to XD, 4C = spl for d F to 4D, 4D = invit)

                                3C = 5-5 max (pass/3D = to play, 3H = invit, 3S = stopper or Q QGF, 4m = invit)

                                3D = 6d max, denies 3H (3H = nat F, 3S = stopper or Q QGF, 4C = suit, 4D = invit)

                                3H = natural, max (3S/4C = Q, 4D = honor, games = to play)

                                3S/4C = 4H, void, max (3N/4C/4D/4S = slam tries)

                                3N = gambling

                                4D = pree

                                4H = natural, no voids

                1S NF, most auctions as above

                                1N sing. s possible (2S = nf, 3C = 4s-6c invit, 3H = 5-5 majors invit, others see above)

                                2C/D (3H = spl in support of minor)

                                2H = reverse, max (2S/3D = NF, 2N/3H/3S = invit, 3C = F to 3D)

                                3D = invit (4H = spl, 5C = void)

                                3H = mini splinter for spades F to 3S, max (3S = nf, 4C/H = Q, 4D = honor)

                                3S = natural, max (3N = nf, 4C/D/H = slam tries)

                1N no major, 6-11, most auctions same as 1D-1S

                                2D = natural (2M = stopper F to 2NT, 3C = 6+ suit nf, 3D = invit, 3M = spl QGF)

                                2M = reverser, max (2S over 2H = stopper, 3m = nf, 2N = inv)

                                2N = 6+ d, bal, max (3C/D = nf, 3M = stopper QGF)

                                3M = 6+ d , spl, QGF (3N/4D = nf, NS = game or slam try)

                                4C = 7+ D, void, F to 4D (4D = nf, else = slam try)




2. Invitational Sequences


Invite hands may proceed artificially through 2D, immediately with a jump-shift, or slowly by bidding a major.


1. 2D response = limit raise in D, one-suited invite (if M then good suit), balanced no major

                2H = catchall (2S/3C/3H = 6+ suit, 2N = bal, 3D = limit)

                2S = pass/correct (pass = 6+ s, 2N = bal, 3C/H = 6+ suit, 3D = limit)

                2N = bal max, GF (3C/H/S = 6+ suit, 3D = limit, 3N = bal

                3C = 5-5, 6-4, 7-3 minors, max, GF (3D = limit or bal, 3H/S = suit, 3N = bal, 4C = suit or bal)

                3D = 6+ suit minimum nonforcing, misfit (P = to play, 3H/S/4C = suit, 3N = bal, 4D = invit)

                3H = 6+ D lo splinter or 7222, max (3S = transfer to 3N, 3N = to play, 4C = nf, 4D = K ask

                                [step one = 4K then DCB], 4H/S = to play, 4N = RKC for diamonds

                3S = 6+ D mid splinter max (see above)

                3N = 6+ D hi splinter max (see above)

                4C = 6-5 or 5-6, min, nf (see below)

                4D = 7-4 minors, min nf (pass = to play, 4D = nf, 4H/S = to play, 4N = rkc for d, 5m = to play)

                4H/S = 6-5 max, gf (new suit = Q slam try assume d fit, 4N = RKC for d, 5D = to play)


2. Two-suiter Responses


                2M suit and another, invit

                                2S relay over 2H

                                                2N = 6h-4c, 3C = 5-5, 3D = 5-5, 3H = 6h-4s,

                                                3S = 6-5, 3N = 6h-4d, 4m = 5-6

                                2N relay over 2S

                                                3C/D/H = 5(6)-5, 3S = 6s-4h, 3N = 6s-4d, 4m = 5-6

                                After relay, only F by opener is a new suit.

                                3C 5-5 min, nf (3X = NF, 4m = invit, 4H/S/N = Q slam try presume c fit)

                                3D 6D, min, nf (3X/4C = NF, 4D = invit, 4H/S/N/5C = Q slam try in d's)

                                raise = invit

                                reverse = reverse

                3C = 6C-3D


3. 3-level rebids, invit

                1D-1M-any-3M = mediocre suit

                1D-1M-1S/N/2D-3C = 4M-6C

                1D-1M-1S/N/2C-3D = 4+M-4+D

                1D-1S-2N-3H = 5-5

                1D-1S-2m-3H = splinter in H




Responding to 1D with a GF hand is easy:  bid 2C.  After shape is shown, show strength (if unbalanced only), then DCB.


Normal rules for interference apply.



                2D no singleton or void, "balanced" note: SAB's available later on in any of these balanced hands

                                NATURAL CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:

                                                2S/N/3C = C/H/S, 3D = d void, 3H/S 2-suit with c's, 4C 2-suit majors

                                                4D = acewood (0/3, 1/4, 2)

                                .2S 4333 or 4432 or 5332, w/diamonds

                                                .3C 4333 or 5332

                                                                .3H lo doub or 4333(.3N 3343, .4C Z 3352)

                                                                .3S mid doub   .3NT hi doub

                                                .3D 4432 with hearts (hi/lo doub)

                                                .3H 4432 with spades (hi/lo doub)

                                                .3S/NT 4432 with clubs, hi/lo doub

                                .2NT 6322 or 7222

                                                .3D hi short (2263 or 2272)

                                                                .3S(4C) 6322 min(max)  .3N(4D-Z) 7222 min(max)

                                                .3H mid short  .3S/NT lo short 3262 min/max

                                .3C 4333 or 5332 clubs longer (note must have 3 d's)

                                                .3H hi short  .3S lo short  .3NT 4333

                                .3D 5422 with minors

                                                .3S 5 clubs  .3NT 5 diamonds

                                .3H 5422 with hearts

                                .3S/NT 5422 with spades min/max

                2H  two-suiters 5431, 6421, (5d-6c min)

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE(2N): "diamond splinter, what's second suit?"

                                                3C 4-5 c's 3D 4h 3H 4s-5d  3S 4s-6d 3N dirty d's or honor splinter 4X nat freak

                                .2N 6421

                                                .3D with clubs (then hi/lo sing) or

                                                                3S STRENGTH ASK AVAILABLE:

                                                                3NT = min, 4C = max hi sing, 4D Z = max low sing

                                                .3H with hearts (then hi/lo sing with zoom)

                                                .3S/NT with spades hi/lo sing

                                .3C 5431 with minors

                                                .3H hi sing (then 3N = 5 c, 4C Z = 5d)

                                                .3S/N = low sing 5c/5d

                                .3D 5431 with hearts (then hi/lo sing)

                                                [book: CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE (long black suit slam try)

                                                                3S/N clubs/spades

                                                                                .3N/P not max fit  .4C+ max fit]

                                .3H 5431 with spades, hi sing

                                .3S/N with spades, lo sing, min/max

                                .4C 1156 min  .4D hi void min, .4H Z to 5C lo void min


                2S 6331 or 7411 or 7321

                                (.3C) , use 3C as the hook to show a min, bypass if max

                                then .3H 7411 or 6331 sing club

                                                .3N 6331 sing club  .4C 7-4 h  .4D 7-4s .4H Z-5D 7-4c

                                                                [book order] c, d, s

                                then .3S 6331 mid short  .3NT 6331 hi short

                                direct .3D 7321 min or max

                                                CHAIN BREAK STRENGTH ASK (3S) available:

                                                                3N = min, 4C/D/H Z = max with lo/mid/hi short

                                                [book CHAIN BREAK (3S) full relay shape:

                                                                .3N =s sing (hi/lo doub) .4C/D s doub (hi/lo sing) .4H+ s trip hi/lo]

                                                .3S lo sing  .3N mid sing  .4C Z hi sing

                2N 6430, 5440, 5530(minors)

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE afraid of spade void (3D):

                                                3H = low void, cont relays, 3S mid void 3N-R, 3N alert: s void

                                .3D lo void

                                                .3S 6-4h  .3N 6-4s  .4C Z 5440

                                .3H mid void

                                                .3N 6-4c  .4C 6-4s .4D 5440 (then 5c/5d Z) .4H Z-5C 3055

                                .3S hi void 6-4c  .3N hi void 6-4h  .4C 5440 (then 5c/5d Z) .4D Z-5C 0355

                3C 6520, 7420, 7330

                                .3H 6520

                                                .3N 6-5c (then hi/lo void with Z)

                                                .4C 6-5h (then hi/lo void with Z)

                                                .4D 6-5s hi void  .4H/S 6-5s lo void min/max

                                .3S 7420 with a major

                                                .4C 7-4h (then hi/lo void with Z)

                                                .4D 7-4s hi void  .4H 7-4s Z-5D lo void

                                .3N 7420 with clubs

                                                .4D hi void  .4H Z lo void

                                .4C/D/H 7330 with lo/mid/hi voids

                3D 5c-5d-21 or 4441

                                CHAIN BREAKS AVAILABLE:

                                                3S = bid 3N with 4441, 3N = pass with 4441 or hi/lo(Z)

                                .3S 5-5 hi sing  .3NT 5-5 lo sing  .4C Z 4441

                3H 4144 splinter (sing h)

                3S/N 1444 splinter min/max (sing s)

                4C 6511 with clubs

                4D/S 6511 with spades (min/max)

                4H 6511 with hearts max


4D Ace-Asking jump available after any response to 2C that is 3H or less.

Note: Relayer must not relay in a 5+ suit at game or higher, for that will be passed


Strength-Showing Stage


After shape is known, opener may ask about strength and controls with a relay.



(same after 1M/2C/2M openers too)

With NT balanced hands - opener is known minimum, bypass this and go straight into controls

With other hands - responder relays for strength: show min or run-on with max

Step 1 = min (12-14, 3-6 K)

                K ask (3, 4, 5, 6Z)

Step 2+ = max(14-16) 4, 5, 6, 7Z


After Strength-showing, the next relay is DCB.




2NT = WJS clubs or weak LR or D raise with M void, forces 3C then

                P = WJS, 3D = weak limit, 3H/S = h/s void with 6+ d and is QGF

3NT = Solid 7-card major, no outside kings

                4C = shortage ask (lo/mid/hi... 7222 fakes a c splinter)

                4D = asks for suit, 4M = pass/correct


2NT = WJS clubs or 5+d spl raise w/ 3-7 K, forces 3C then

                P = WJS, 3D/H/S = c/d/s splinter, 3N = s void 11-13 AKQ, 4C+ = s void 14-16 AKQ

3NT = game void splinter, 2K, 10-12 AKQ, 4C asks lo/mid/hi then VCB]






1. natural bidding, no relays or 2-suiters

2. inverted minors out of comp

3. splinters QGF

4. Jump Shifts (2M fit-showing then new suits force, 3C 3325 12-13 HCP)

5. 1D-2D-3D = preemptive in comp

6. 1D-2C then (2D = NF, 2M = 14-16 reverser, 2N = invit)






- 12-14 balanced, 4 cards with no cheaper biddable suit

- 5+ cards

- 4S-4H-1D-4C



Response Summary:

                1S = natural, NF

                1N = semiforcing

                2C = GF Relay

                2D = Invit. Relay

                raise = 3+ trumps (not weak if 3 cards)

                2N+ = artificial






                1S not-forcing

                                pass = balanced min, 3 spades

                                1NT = 12-16, maybe sing. S honor if other bids too flawed

                                                2NS = nf, 2N/3any = invit (if spades, then mediocre)

                                                [book: 2C = crowhurst (2D = 12-13 4H-2S, 2H = 12-14 5H maybe 3S,

                                                                2S = 13-14 3S, 2N = 14 catchall, 3m = values 15-16, 3H =

                                                                15-16 catchall, 3S = 15-16 3S-5H, 3N = 15-16 5hearts)

                                                                2 suit = NF, 3C = weak canape, 3D = invit 6D]

                                2C = 5+H, 4+C

                                                2X = nf, 2N/3any = invit (if spades then mediocre suit)

                                2D = 5+H, 4+D

                                                2X = nf, 2N/3any = invit (if spades then mediocre suit)

                                2H = 6+ suit

                                                2S = nf, 2N/3any = invit (if spades then mediocre)

                                2S = 3+ spades, min (bids invit, JS void)

                                2N = 6 hearts balanced, max

                                                3m = stopper, 3M nf, 4m splinter

                                3C = 5+H, 5C max

                                                3D = stopper, 3M nf, 4C invit, 4D splinter

                                3D = 5+H, 5D max

                                                3M nf, 4C Q, 4D invit

                                3H = 6H max

                                                3S forcing, 4m cue

                                3S = max (4m cues)

                                3NT = solid heart suit, gambling (cues)

                                4m = void splinter for spades, max (cues)

                                4S = max

                1NT semiforcing (same as 1H-1S except...)

                                2C 5+ h, 3+ c; or 4414 max (2D/H = nf, 2S = bal c raise f to 2NT, 2N/3C/3H = invit.,

                                                                                3D/S = 5+ c with bid suit ace, 3H = invit)

                                2D 5+ h, 3+ d; (same as after 2C, but 3C nf)

                                2H 6+ h (2S = 5-5 minors or heart raise with dirty spades[rebid 3H], 2N/3H invit, 3m nf)

                                2S reverse dist, max (3m/H = nf, 2N/3S = invit)

                                2N 6 h, bal, max (3m/H = nf)

                                3C 5h-5c max (3D/H = nf, 3S = stopper, 4C = invit)

                                3D 5h-5d max (3H = nf, 3S = stopper, 4C = Q, 4D = invit)

                                3H 6 h, max (3S = stopper, 4m = suit with h support)

                                3S/4C/4D 7+ hearts, max, void (3N/4H = to play)

                                3NT Gambling



                1NT semiforcing (like 1H-1NT except...)

                                2m 5+ s, 3+ m (2suit = nf[2H shows 5], 2N/3raise = invit, 3C over 2D = nf,

                                                                3D over 2C = ace with 5+ c, 3H over 2m = ace with 5+ c)

                                2H 5+ s, 4+ h (2S/3m = nf, 2N/3M = invit, 3N = s splinter w/ 5+ h, 4m = 2s-5h-ace)

                                2S 6+ suit (3H = dirty values game try in s)

                                3H 5+ s, 5 h max (3S/NT = nf, 4m = Q)

                                4 new 7+ spades, void, max (4S = nf, 4NT+ = slam try)


                2H 6 hearts, 5-9 HCP, nf

                                2S = 6+ suit nf, 2N = bal max, 3m = 5+ s- 5m nf, 3M = invit, 3NT = gamb, 4m = void

                                                max splinter with 4h



                relay sets up LSGT

                                relay = asks lo/mid/hi GT, bypassing relay shows 4 trumps with dirty values in lo/mid/hi

                R+1/2/3 = splinter game try in lo/mid/hi suits, further bidding shows 4 trump with dirty val

                3M = preemptive

                4 NS = void




1. 2D (UPH)

                A. limit raise

                B. one-suited invite (if oM, good su it)

                C. 11-12 bal

                D. 5-5 minors (12 HCP)

Opener rebids:

                2M = 5+ suit, min

                                P = min, NS = 6+ suit, 2N = bal, 3N = minors(4m,5m to play, 4oM cue, 4N both minor aces slam try)

                2oM = relay, QGF (that's GF to 3NT or 4m) or better

                                NS = 6+ suit, 2NT = bal, 3M = limit, 3NT = minors, 4C/D/M = splinter 4+ trumps

                2NT = balanced, min

                                Pass = bal, NS = 6+ suit, 3M = limit, 3N = minors

                3 NS = 5-5 or 6-4, max, GF (except H then S = S splinter with 6+ hearts)

                                NS = 6+ suit, 3M = balanced or limit, JS = spl for original major, 4M = 4+ crds no slam

                3M = natural, invitational

                                3N/4M = to play, NS = 6+ suit

                3NT balanced, 14 HCP, no 5 card suit

                4NS = 6-5 max (now new suit natural else to play)

                4M = to play (only cues or RKC)


2. Two-suiters (UPH)


                                2S = 5-5 with spades, inv, or 6s-3h inv

                                                2NT relay

                                                                3C 5s-5c (now 4D artif strong, relay)

                                                                3D 5s-5d (now 3H inv, 4C artif strong relay)

                                                                3H/S 6s-3h normal/good spade suit

                                                3m = 5-5 min

                                                3H = min

                                3C = 6c-3h invit. (now 3NS shows stopper, 3H 5 crds to play)

                                3D = 6d-3h invit. (now 3H, games to play, 3S stopper, 4C slam try, 4D invit)


                                3C = 5h-5c

                                                3D forcing and artif, 3S min 6+ suit, 4D artif strong relay

                                3D = 5h-5d (3-level and games NF, 4C artif storng relay, 4D invit)

                                3H = 6h-3s (3S and games to play, 4m Q strong,


                After two suits known (5-5, 6-4?), 4th suit on 4-level is slam try artificial:

                                Step 1: hi short         Step 2: low short        Step 3: 1-1

                Then, relay in non-responder suit (even opener's suit) control asking in two suits:

                                Step 1: 2K  Step 2: 3K  Step3+: 4+K DCB

                Then, DCB (ignore side kings)

                To signoff, opener bids one of responder's suits


3. 3-level rebids by responder after 1H-1S:

                After 1H-1S, responder's rebid of 3m, whether jump or not, shows a 4-6 canape 9-10 HCP.

                3S rebid shows a mediocre suit, invite hand.


4.  Other:



                                                2NT balanced , 3C nat  3D/H ace, 5+c's, 3S invite

                                                3/4NT S splinter 6+ c's 1/2 aces, 4C/D/H 6+ c's and 2 s's and ace of side suit


                                                2NT bal, 3C nf, 3D inv, 3H ace and 5+ d's, 3S invite

                                                3NT+ as above


                                                2N bal, maybe 3 hearts

                                                                3C max (3D relay)

                                                                                3H = 5-5, 3S = 6-4, 3NT = 5413 exactly

                                                                3D 5431max, 3H 5-5 min, 3S 5-5 min

                                                3M invite, 3m nf, 3N s spl with 5+ h, 4C/D 2s-5+h ace in suit

                1H-1NT (extra sequences from above)


                                                2N bal, 3H invit, 2S bal invite in clubs


                                                2S bal invite is diamonds




2C handles all GF hands.  The rules are the same as after a 1C or 1D opening.



                2C GF relay response

                                2D no singleton or void, "balanced"

                                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE

                                                                2S clubs  2NT diamonds 3C oM 3D void in opener's suit

                                                                3H minors  3S C-oM  4C D-oM 4D acewood (0/3,1/4,2)

                                                .2S 4333 or 5332 or (any 4432 except that exactly)

                                                                .3C 4333 or 4432

                                                                                .3H 4333 or (4423 exactly)

                                                                                                .3N 4333  .4C 4423 exactly

                                                                                .3S 4432 with clubs and 2 other major

                                                                                .3N 4432 with clubs and 3 other major

                                                                .3D 5332 low doub

                                                                .3H 5332 mid doub

                                                                .3S/NT 5332 hi doub MIN/MAX

                                                .2NT 6332

                                                                .3D low tripleton (.4C SSS MAX)

                                                                .3H mid tripleton (.4D SSS MAX)

                                                                .3S hi tripleton MIN .3N MAX  (.4H/S SSS 4(max if h)/5(s only)K)

                                                .3C 5422 with clubs

                                                .3D 5422 with diamonds

                                                .3H/S 5422 1S opener: other major MIN/MAX, 1H: 5-4/4432

                                                .3N(Z to game) 7222 MIN or better if more steps

                                2H  Common Singleton  (5-4, 6-4, 6-5 unbalanced)

                                                .2NT 6-4

                                                                .3D with clubs

                                                                                STRENGTH ASK (3S) AVAILABLE:

                                                                                                3NT MIN  4C MAX hi sing 4D(Z) MAX low sing

                                                                                .3S hi sing (.4C SSS MAX)

                                                                                .3NT low sing (.4D SSS MAX Z to game)

                                                                .3H with diamonds

                                                                                .3N hi sing (.4D max SSS)

                                                                                .4C low sing (.4H SSS, max, and 4S if 1S opener with 5K)

                                                                .3S with oM hi sing (.4C SSS max)

                                                                .3NT with oM lo sing (.4D SSS max Z to game)

                                                .3C 5431 with clubs

                                                                .3H hi sing  .3S(NT) low sing min(max)

                                                .3D 5431 with diamonds

                                                                .3S hi sing  .3NT low sing

                                                .3H 5431 other major hi sing

                                                .3S(3NT) 5431 other major low sing min (max)

                                                .4C 6511 reverser (h-s or d-h) minimum

                                                .4D 6520 high shortage reverser

                                                .4H 6520 low shortage reverser

                                .2S    Rare Singleton   (6331, 7411, 7321)

                                                (.3C 7411 or 6331 minimum) else skip to 3H+ and with SSS skip to 4C+

                                                                .3H all except (6331 with 3 clubs) and the (SSS's)

                                                                                .3NT 6331 low sing .4C/D 7411 with clubs/diamonds

                                                                                .4H 7411 oM (with base/base+1 run-on if spades)

                                                                .3S 6331 mid sing  (.4D SSS)

                                                                .3NT 6331 hi sing (.4H SSS, with a base/base+1 run-on if spades)

                                                                .4C 6331 low sing SSS

                                                .3D 7321

                                                                STRENGTH/SING BREAK AVAILABLE (3S)

                                                                                3N min  4C/D/H max lo/mid/hi sing

                                                                [book: see 1D opening (3S asks full dist)]

                                                                .3S low sing  .3NT mid sing  .4C(Z to game) oM sing min+

                                .2NT CommonVoid  5-4, 6-4, 5-5

                                                CHAIN BREAK(3D) "Scared of void in other major"

                                                                3H club void, cont. relays 3S diam void 3NT-R 3NT void oM

                                                .3D club void

                                                                .3S 6430

                                                                                .4C 4d  .4D 4oM ZtoG

                                                                .3NT 5440 .4C 5M-5d (run-on if hearts) .4D/H 5s-5h min/max

                                                .3H diamond void

                                                                .3NT 6430

                                                                                .4D 4 clubs  .4H 4 oM (min-max if spades)

                                                                .4C 5440  .4D 5M-5c  .4H 5-5 majors

                                                .3S void other major - 6430

                                                                ..4D 4 clubs  ..4H(Z) 4 diamonds

                                                .3NT void oM 5440  .4C void oM 5M-5c  .4D(ZtoG) void oM 5M-5d

                                .3C Rare Void : 6-5, 7-4, 7-3

                                                .3H 6520

                                                                .3NT 6M-5oM

                                                                                .4D hi void  .4H low void (check out zoom notes?)

                                                                .4C 6M-5c

                                                                                .4H hi void .4S(Z) lo void

                                                                .4D 6M-5d hi void  .4H lo void (min/max if spades)

                                .3S 7420 with a minor

                                                .4C 7M-4c

                                                                .4H hi void  .4S(min-Z) lo void

                                                .4D 7M-4d hi void  .4H(min-Z) lo void

                                .3NT 7420 with oM

                                                .4D hi void  .4H(min-Z)lo void

                                .4C 7330 c void .4D d void  .4H(min/max if s) hi void

                .3D 5521 with clubs (then hi/lo shortages)

                                STRENGTH BREAK AVAILABLE (3S)

                                                3NT min  4C hi short max 4D(Z 4K) lo short max

                .3H 5521 with diamonds (then hi-lo with min-Z)

                .3S 5521 with oM hi short (or if 4414 exactly, 3S min 3N max)

                .3NT 5521 oM, lo short

                .4C 6511 with c  .4D 6511 with d .4H 6511 other major (if reverser then max)


Strength-Showing Stage


After shape is known, opener may ask about strength and controls with a relay.



With balanced hands with only a 4-card suit, minimum is assumed so go straight to DCB.

With other hands:

Step 1 = min (12-14, 3-6 K)

                K ask (3, 4, 5, 6Z)

Step 2+ = max(14-16) 4, 5, 6, 7Z


After Strength-showing, the next relay is DCB.





A. 1M-2NT = GF splinter low controls (4+ trumps, 2K, 11+ HCP) or any weak jump shift

                3C (semiforced)

                                pass/3D/3oM = WJS

                                3M = GF splinter singleton (relay for lo-mid-hi sing)

                                3N/4C/4D = GF splinter void low/mid/hi

                3D (paradox anticipating WJS) cont like 3C

                3M (nonforcing, rejects all WJS)

                3oM (paradox) if 3M unavailable to show splinter, use 3NT then relay for short

                in comp: pass lets WJS bidder bid at 3-level, bids 5-5+ MAX, X = pens

B. 1M-3M is a weak limit raise (minisplinter??) [book: forcing unbal raise 11-13 AKQ, game spl]

C. 1M-3(M+1) = game singleton splinter, 3K, 4+ trumps, 9-12 HCP, R for sing then R for DCB

D. 1M-(3M+2 or better) = game void splinter as above (lo/mid/hi) [book: 14-16 AKQ for both bids]








1. natural bidding

2. 1M-2NT(nat?)- 3m = forcing to 3M, 3M = nf, 4X = void

3. all splinters show VOIDS

4. 1M-3M = shapely sublimit raise (mixed)

5. Jump-shifts are fit-showing (except 3C)

6. Jump-shift to 3C is 3s-3h-2d-5c 12-13

7. 2/1 doesn't force beyond 2 of opener's suit

8. DRURY: 2C without comp over 1M shows 10-13 unbal 3-card supp or 9-13 4-card supp


                2D opening or better

                                2H forcing, 5 h (maybe dirty values with 4 s), then 2NT invit

                                2S =minimum drury, 2N = 3s 11-12 HCP, 3 new = splinter w/ 4 s forcing to 3M

                                3S = 4+ s, 11-12, invit (4X by opener nat slam try)

                2H 5+ s, 4+ h, opening or better, forcing to 2S

                                3m = splinter forc to 3S, 3M = nat invit

                2S = subminimum (further 2NT = 3s tip top, 3m = splinter tip top)

                2NT = GF, 5 s, 15-16 HCP natural (3X = splinter)

                3 new = GF natural 5-4+

                3S = GF, good suit, invites 3NT


1H-2C (same as 1S-2C except...)

                after 2D/H, 2S/3C/3D show lo-mid-hi splinters

                2S is natural forcing to 3H, opening or better (3m = spl)






- 15-17 HCP

Shapes may include:

-6 clubs [book: open this one 2NT]

-5 clubs or diamonds or hearts

-5m-4-2-2 with stuff in doubletons

-special "Blue Team" 14-17 3h-3s-2d-5c.







By unpassed hand

2C = GF relay (see below)

2D = Invitational stayman (if X'd then P shows a stopper, over which a 3M jump is a splinter)

                2H = 4+ H

                2S = 4S denies hearts

                2N = no M, min

                3C = no M, max

                no splinter bids after a 2D response, so jumps are nat

2M = NF (SSGT)

2N = invit

3m = NF

3M = splinter with the minors and less than 4 in other major

3N = NF

4C = acewood (03,14,2)

4D/H = Texas

4S/5m = NF

4NT = quant 4333


By a passed hand, or after 1C-1D-1N

2C = Stayman

                2X-NSS = invit, NSJ = splinter (void if m)

                2D-2H = 4S-5+H invit

                2H-3C-3D = QGF, 3S = 4S QGF

                2S-3H = c.o.g.

4-suit transfers (Opener accepts or 2N = max 4333 2/3 honors, Jump accept = extras, NS = SSGT).    Responder rebids raise or 2N = invit, NSS = F to Q game or 2NT, NSJ = void.

                2H-2S-3H = 5+s-4h

                2D-2H-2S-any-3S = 5s-5+h

                2D-2H-3C-Q = denies 3H, dirty values or Q with c support

                If a transfer is doubled, pass = doub or min with 3, XX shows xtras with support, complete = 3crd avg+.  Responder over a pass can XX retransfer if weak, complete the transfer or bifd 2NT with invit, or NS to GF


2N = invit (3X = nf)

3D = minors with better diamonds, 3H asks (3S = 5-5, 3N = 6-4, 4C = 6-5, 4D = 7-4)

3M = invit good suit

3N = to play

4C = acewood

4D/H = texas

4S/5m = NF






Please note some treatments from another edition, labeled 'book'.  They are not part of this edition.


2C any GF hand

                2D no major

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE: "3-suiters and 2-suiters and slammish minors"

                                                2S/N/3C/D = C/D/H/S splinters, 3H = 5-5 h-m(relay for c/d),

                                                3S = 5-5 sp + another (rel for suit), 4C = minors 14+ hcp, bal, F to 4N

                                .2S 5+ clubs [book: shows 5c-332 or 4c-333]

                                                .3C 6 clubs [book: 5 clubs, then lo/mid/hi]

                                                                .3H hi short  .3S mid short  .3N lo short

                                                .3D 5 clubs, low short (14-17)  .3H mid short  .3S/N hi short min/max

                                                [book: .3D/H 3334 min/max]

                                .2N 5 diamonds

                                                .3D/H/S/N lo/mid/hi(min/max) short

                                .3C 44 minors hi short  .3D lo short  .3H 4d-5c  .3S/N 5d-4c min/max

                2H 4+ hearts, not spades

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:

                                                2N/3C/D/H = lo to hi splinters, 3S = s void with h support

                                .2N hi short

                                                .3D 4-4c  .3H 4-4d .3S/N 5h min/max

                                .3C 4-4 c  .3D 4-4 d  .3H 5h 2d  .3S/N 5h 2c min/max

                2S 4 spades - 4 minor

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:

                                                3C/D/H/S = natural splinters

                                .3C 4-4c hi short  .3D 4-4d hi short  .3H 4-4c lo short  .3S/N 4-4d hi short

                2N 4333 not spades (oh really? then how to show it? assume an error. -Dan) with ALROY not c

                                CHAIN BREAK AVAILABLE:

                                                3D = minor spl (rel for lo/hi), 3H/S = h/s splinters

                                .3D 4c  .3H 4d  .3S 4h  (.3N spades? -Dan)

                3C 4-4 majors hi short 

                3D 4-4 majors lo short

                3H 5c-4h 

                3S/NT 5c-4s min/max


Strength Showing


After showing shape, the next relay asks strength.


Max defined as 15+ not counting jacks, and 5+ controls.


In step bidding we use AKQ pts, where A = 3, K = 2, Q = 1, J ignored,  e.g. (12,14AKQ) = 12 or 14 AKQ


                (1 step) 4 controls, or 5 ctrls-(11,13)AKQ, or 6 ctrls-(12,14AKQ)

                                .(1) 4 controls

                                                .(1) 12 AKQ  .(2) 14 AKQ .(3)Z 16 AKQ

                                .(2) 5 controls

                                                .(1) 11 AKQ  .(2)Z 13 AKQ

                                .(3) 6 ctrls-12AKQ  .(4)Z 14AKQ

                (2) 15 AKQ

                                .(1) 5 ctrls  .(2)Z 7 ctrls

                (3) (6, 8) ctrls-16AKQ

                                .(1) 6 ctrls  .(2)Z 8 ctrls (DCB for J's)

                (4)Z 5 ctrls-17 AKQ




A. With 6 clubs, after dist show controls (4,5,6,7zoom) then DCB.  Never AKQ.

B.  With 3325 hands, range may be wide, so 1N-2C-2D-2H-2S-2N-3D-3H then

                3S = 14 HCP, 3-6 ctrls...... then two relays available (3NT to play)

                                (4C relay for in depth knowledge)

                                .4D 3 ctrls

                                                .4S 11 AKQ  .4N Z 13 AKQ

                                .4H 4 ctrls

                                                .4N 10  .5C 12  .5D Z 14

                                .4S 5 ctrls

                                                .5C 11  .5D Z 13

                                .4N 6 ctrls-12AKQ  .5C Z 6 ctrls-14 AKQ


                                (or 4D relay for basic DCB)

                3N = 15-17, min Z.  Use normal strength showing steps.


Stopper-Asking Bids (SAB's).


Relayer may break relays at the 3-level.  These relay-breaks ask for stopper in fragments according to rule:

In general, the cheapest SAB asks about the cheapest and shortest fragment (2-3 card suit).  So, if only 3S available, asks about lowest(only) doubleton or lowest of 4333 trip's.  If 3H and 3S available, asks for lowest and middle of shortest suits up the line.  If 3D/H/S available, just run the frags from bottom to top (over 3H, 3S shows a partial stop).  EXCEPTION:  If opps have doubled a suit, that becomes the first frag in the queue automatically regardless of place or length.





1. PH Stayman

                a. when overcalled, cue-bid below 3N asks for stopper if not conventional

                b. when X'd, pass = stopper, XX = desire to play (2D nf, 2H f, 2S 5+s invit, 2N invit w 4S, 3N 4s),

                                                2D+ = no stopper same as if no X

2. Opponents Interference (if explicitly agreed beforehand!)

                a. pen X - Moscow 2C = C/H, 2D = D/H, 2N = minors or any GF 2-suiter, 3X = pree,

                                                                XX = S + another ...  pass forces XX then pass = to play, 2m = to play,

                                                                2M = invit, 2N = minors invite, 3m = invite, 3M = forcing

                b. 2C Landy - X = negative invites penX or pass F to 2NT, 2D = nf, 2H = NF MSS, 2S = F MSS,

                                                2N = leb, 3C = invit, 3D = GF, 3M = GF splinter 5-5 m, 3N = to play

                c. 2m ASTRO - anchor seit = NF stayman (Q by opener shows max with oM), X = neg invites pen

                                                                F to 2NT, NSJ = GF, 2NSS = nf, 3 anchor = spl w/out oM, 2N leb

                d. 2C for minors - X = neg, 2D = stayman F1, 2M = nf, 2N = leb, 3m = spl w majors, 3M = gf

                e. 2D for majors - same as over landy but 3D = invit

                f. vs conv X, PH sys on

                g. Transfer o/c - X = neg F to 2N, Q = nfstayman, 2N = leb, 2NSS = nf, NSJ = gf (anch = spl)

                h. 2m natural - X neg(then 2M invit, 3X GF, Q GF spl), 2NSS = nf, 2N leb, Q slam spl, NSJ GF

                                                3NSJ = invit

                i. 2M natural - X = neg(if then NS GF), leb (slow denies), 3 lower = invit, 3 higher = GF

                j. 3-level o/c - X = neg, NS = f, Q = 2-suit, Texas over 3C

                k. reopening by opener - X over the bidder is pen, under is T/O, 2N = minors 4d-5c, 2H = 5h

                l. understandings - XX of 3NT in passout seat by either shows uncertainty







2C Req's:

- 5+C-4M or 6C-5M minimum

- 6+C, maybe 4D, 12-16


2M Req's:

- 5+C-4M or 6C-5M maximum


Definitions of Minimum and Maximum:  A minimum has 3-6 controls and is not too concentrated or strong.  A maximum has 4-7 controls, 14-16 HCP, and concentrated strength, guaranteeing trick-taking power.


Responses to 2C:

                2D = invit+ relay

                2M/3C = nf

                2N = invit

                3D/3M = invit, good suit

                4m = pree [book: 4D = RKC for C]

                games = to play

                4N = BW


Treat 2H and 2S Openers as after 2C-2D-2M.







                2H (2S = nat misfit min, 2N = max misfit, 3C = misfit, 3D = 5d max, 3H = invit, NSJ = void,

                                3NT = gamb, 4C = invit w/ 7+C and 2H)

                2S (same as above except 3H = 5H min)

                2N/3C (pass = nat, 3C = NF, 3 new = spl or 5-cards[rebid] max, 3N = max, 4c = invit/(pree/3C),

                                4D = 5-6 max, 4M = 5-6 min)

                3D/H/S (3N = NF, 4C = misfit, 3NSS = search for 3NT QGF, 4NSS = Q slam try, NSJ = void,

                                                games = to play)


                pass = nat

                2S = nat, NF (pass = nat, 2N = 5-4 misfit, 3C = 6-4 misfit, 3D = 5440 misfit, 3H = 5-6,

                                                3S/4C = invit, 4D = 5440 d void

                2N relay (see relays)

                3C = nf

                3D = nat, nf

                3H/S/4C = invit

                4D = splinter

                games = to play

2S (same as over 2H except 3H = nat invit, 3S = invit, 4D = spl, 4H = to play)






2C all (7222, 6331, 7321, 7330, 6-4d, 7-4d) and minimum (4+h, 4+s, 6322)

                .2H natural (with 4-4 majors bid best one)

                                with SS clubs and a major instead bid 3NT over 2NT relay

                                Note: 2NT is the RELAY

                                [ BOOK: NON-RELAYS - suit = invit (if H then broken), JS = splinter for major]

                                ..3C 5422 (now raise or 4C = invit, 3S = GF [supp with an honor])

                                                [Book:  3D asks stoppers (3H = D contrl or no contrls [3S asks: 3N/4C = D/no]

                                                ... 3S = stop in oM only, 3N = both side stops.  Relays continue.), 3 op suit =

                                                ... invit, 3oM = nat GF]

                                ..3D 5431 or 5440 (now 4C = invit)

                                                Note:  3N not to play (to sign off, must relay or do so on prior round)

                                                ANTI-RELAYS: relays cont. on 4-level if suprise hand

                                                                3S "Diamonds" bid 3N unless 4D  3N "Spades" pass unless 4S

                                                .3S hi sing  .3N lo sing  .4C hi void  .4D Z-5C lo void

                                ..3H 6-4 hi short (.3N 6421  .4C Z 6430)

                ..3S 6-4 lo short (..4D 6421  ..4H Z 6430)

                ..3NT special SS 6 clubs with 4h or 4s, then 4C asks dist(hi/lo sing, hi/lo void Z) and

                                                4D relays for controls

                ..4C 7-4 (.4H eq short  .4S hi short  .4N Z lo short)

                ..4D 6511  ..4H 6520 (then hi/lo short Z to 4M only [if H, then shape incomplete])

.2S natural

                [BOOK:  NON-RELAYS - see above with 2H]

                .3C 5422 ( 3S invit, 3H GF asks for Hx support, 4C invit [Book: see above])

                .3D 5431 or 5440 void hearts (.3S hi sing .3N low sing  .4C h void)

                                [Book: Anti-relays, see above]

                .3H 6-4 hi short (.3N 6421 .4C Z 6430)

                .3S 6-4 lo short (..4D 6421 ..4H Z 6430)

                .3NT SS exception see after 2H

                .4C 7-4  (.4H/S/N Z eq/hi/lo short)

                .4D 6511  .4H 6-5 hi void .4S 6-5 lo void

.2N 6322  minimum, 3D relays for (223/232/322, no Z), else 3C = nf, 3M/4C = invit, 4D = F,

                                4M = to play

.3C the rest (6331, 7321, 7222, 4d) of the minimums

                [Book: 3M = 5+ crds F, 4C = invit, 4D = splinter, games to play]

                .3H lo short or 7222

                                .3N 7222 .4C 6331  .4D Z 7(32)1/7330

                .3S mid short

                                ..4D 6c, 3+ d's  ..4H Z 7c

                .3N hi short

                                .4D 6c, 3+ d's  .4H Z 7c

                .4C 7-4 eq short  .4D 7-5 hi short  .4H Z-5C 7-4 lo short


.3D 4d (now 3S GF asks for honor support, 4m = nat invit)

                .3S hi short (..4D sing  ..4H Z void)

                .3N lo short (.4D sing  .4H Z void)

                [Book: above are 6-4's.  4C+ are 7-4's eq/hi/lo short Z-5C]

.3H lo short or 7222

                .3N 7222 .4C 6331 .4D Z 7(32)1

.3S mid short (..4D 6331 ..4H Z 7(32)1)

.3N hi short (.4D 6331 .4H Z 7(32)1)

.4C 7330, then relay or 4M "pass unless void" (.4H lo short .4S mid short .4N Z-5C hi short)

.4D/H/S Z-5C 6-5d eq/hi/lo short

2H maximum h-c canapes

                as over 2C.2H

2S maximum s-c canapes

                as over 2C.2S


Relay Breaks after 2C-2D


NS is invit with broken suit(3S = GF), NSJ = splinter, 4C = invit, games = to play.



4C exception


4C, when not a relay, is invitational, even in a GF auction.



Strength-Showing Stage


After shape is known, opener may ask about strength and controls with a relay.



If holding a major, max/min is known so show controls directly.

If not holding a major, show max/min.


Step 1 = min (12-14, 3-6 K)

                K ask (3, 4, 5, 6Z)

Step 2+ = max(14-16) 4, 5, 6, 7Z


After Strength-showing, the next relay is DCB.






All relays off.




                                XX 10+ HCP, F to 2N, followed by (NS = F1, 2N = invit)

                                NS = NF, 4C = pree, NSJ = pree

                                3C = pree (3X = spl or 6-5[rebid].. assume splinter but raise on 3 or 4 little)


                                X = neg , Q = GF grope, NS = F, 2N = invit, 4C = nf

                                3C = nf (3X = spl or 6-5[rebid].. assume splinter but raise on 3 or 4 little)


                (X takeout)

                                NSS = NF, XX = GF invites X with 3 trump, 2N = invit, 3C/4C = nf


                                X = pens, 2N = invit, NS = F, 3/4C = nf


After relays have started:

After 2C-2D-(X), continue relays but P = 4 step and XX = 5 step.

After 2M-2N-(X/3m), relays on.

After 2C-2D-(o/c), no relays but F to 2NT.






                2M-2NT invit, not relay

                2N-3D invit, nat

                3C-3D stopper, QGF

2C-2N/3C-3X = assume splinter but maybe 6-5 so raise on 3-4 little


2M - ?  = same as UPH structure



2D Multi and the Preempts


These are independent from the rest of the system, so may be replaced in part or entirely by a style of your choice.  But here there are as in the notes.






- weak two in a major



                pass = misfit or tactical

                XM = pass/correct except 4S

                2N = feature ask

                3m = F

                3N = to play

                4C asks to be transferred into major

                4D asks for major

                4N Roman BW

                5m = to play.





                                pass = hearts or tactical

                                2S = spades (2N = feature ask, 3m = nat forc, 3H = nat invit misfit)


                                pass = spades or tactical

                                2N = hearts with spade stop

                                3C/D = hearts with C/(D or MIN) feature (3S = nat invit)


                                3C MIN or C feature

                                                3D relay

                                                                3H = H, min (3S nat F)

                                                                3S = S, min (4H NF)

                                                                3N = C feature, bal (4C retransfer, 4D bid suit, 4M to play)

                                                                4D/H = hearts/spades, C feature (4M to play)

                                                3H pass/correct

                                                3S pass/correct

                                                                3N = H, bal, c.o.g and declarers

                                                                4C = choice of declarers

                                                                4D retransfer

                                                3N/4C/D/M = c.o.g./retransfer/bid/ to play

                                3D D feature (same as over 3C)

                                3M feature with other major (3S to play, 3N c.o.g, 4m slam try, 4M to play)

                                3N bal max SS+ suit (4C retrans, 4D bid, 4M to play)

                                4C any spl, MAX with 7-card M (4D bid, 4M p/c)

                                4D/H transfer to 7222 (4S to play)


                                3D/H/S/N = Hmin/Smin/Hmax/Smax, no raise

                                4C = raise (4D bid, 4M p/c)

                                4D = d spl, C raise (4M p/c)

                                4M = spl, C raise, other major


                                3M = nat no fit, min

                                3N max (4C retrans, 4D bid. 4M p/c)

                                4C = c spl, d raise (4D bid. 4M p/c)

                                4D = d raise (4M p/c)

                                4M = spl, d raise, other major

Slam Tries:

2D-4N BW

any retransfer 4C, then 4NT = RKC

any retransfer 4C, then 5C = general slam try





                                pass suggests playing 2D-X, XX suggests C lead, 2H+ same as before


                                2N/3m = F (NS with avg+ hand, rebid suit with min)

                                X = pens

                (3m)  (X = pens, om = F maybe lead direct, 3M = p/c)


If 3/4m overcall over 2D-2S, must bid with hearts.  Pass = spades, over clubs X shows hearts but can stand penalty pass, 3D is retransfer can't stand penalty pass.  Over diamonds, just X to retransfer.






Transfer preempts, along with NAMYATS.


2N = club preempt

                3C = nf

                3D = artificial invite with a major

                3M = GF

                4C = pree

                4D = Artifical Slam Try (AST)

                4M = to play

3C = diamond preempt

                3D nf

                3M F

                4C AST

                4D pree

                4M to play

3D = heart preempt

                3H = to play[pass except if solid suit bid 3S]

                3S+ = nat

3H = spade pree

                3S to play [3N solid s]

                3NT+ nat [opener may retransfer into spades]

in comp,

over X, pass suggests playing there (2NT = diamonds), XX asks for club lead(2NT = diamonds)



[book: 3X nat, 2NT 14-16 6c-322 good clubs]


Responses to transfer preempts

NS below game = F1

4C AST with fit (artif slam try), then NS = 2nd rd ctrl, 4N = outside ace, retransfer into M = min

                                4S after 3H shows HQ (after 3D/H 5 same suit = good trump retrans,

                                5M = void underneath)

4C AST over 3C, then 4D = min, 5D = good trumps

4D AST over 2NT, same as above but 5D/H/S = voids


(4NT is RKC after any AST.)


4N = Trump-Asking bid (see end)



2N-3D (ART)

                3H = non-accept of a hearts invite hand (3S invit with spades, 3N c.o.g in c or NT)

                3S = accepts heart invite, declines spade invite (3N c.o.g. NT or clubs)

                3N = accepts either major

                                AFTER ANY OF THE ABOVE:

                                4C = invit, 4D = nat F

2N-3M (GF)

                3S = no support

                3N = AVG+ pree, no support

                4C = dung pile, no support

                4lower  = monster raise, Q

                4raise = weaker raise


                3N = no support, 4C = no support retransfer, 4D = monster raise, 4H = Q/supp for S/H


                3N = AVG+ pree, no support   4D = retrans (4N= RB), 4C/H/S = c.o.g./monster/raise (4N RKC)


In competition,

takeout X - McCabe (XX = lead low unshown suit, NS may be lead direct)




Any 4N directly over a 2N/3C/3D/3H opening or 4M bid:

Responses are -

                5C = 2 losers vs doubleton (5D asks if one loser vs. singleton honor)

                5D = 2 losers vs singleton

                5H = 2 losers vs void

                5S = one loser missing ace or king

                5NT = one loser with AK (6C asks 7 with extra length)

                6C = no losers vs doub

                6D = no losers vs sing

                6H = no losers vs void

                6S = no losers vs void, and extras (if safe)

Otherwise, any new suit after TAB asks extra values to bid higher.




These ask for degree of control of a suit when searching for slam.


2N/3C/3D/3H- 5new

4m- (4S or) 5 new

5m- (6C or) 5 new



                Step (1) = 0 ctrls, (2) = sing, (3) = ace, (4+) = void with cue

                cheapest NT (interrupting other steps) = Kx

Opener can always lie with an exceptionally weak hand.




3. 3S+ (NAMYATS)


3S = solid minor (over X, pass asks to bid suit, XX = GF but asks for suit or pen X)

                3N = to play

                4C = p/c (maybe slammish if D)

                4D = p/c maybe slammish if C (4M = sing, 4N = retrans)

                4M = to play


3NT = 4 minor preempt (over X, pass asks suit, XX is game try)

                4m = p/c maybe slam if superfit (later 4M = c.o.g.)

                4M = to play

                4N = undefined slam try emphasizing suit quality

                5m = p/c


4C = good 4H (4+K, splinter) (over X, XX = sets F with mild fit, P = weak or trap, 4D suggests 5H)

                4D = slam try

                4H = signoff

                4S/5m = support asking

                4NT = RKC


4D = good 4S opening

                as over 4H


4M = average or worse 4M opening, no slam (in comp, new suit maybe lead direct, XX sets force)

                NS = support ask

                4N = TAB

                5M quant


4NT = 6-6 or better in minors, 9-12 NV, 11-14 V usually

                m = NF

                5M = ace and key minor card

                5N = both aces and key minor card


5m= wide range

                NSS = support ask for 7

                5N = asks solid trumps for 7


5M = Asks raise with A, K, or Q

                6M = K or Q

                5N = ace (6C asks for extra length)

                7 = 2/3 top honors